Journal of Clinical and Investigative Surgery
ISSN: 2559-5555


Modern management of diabetic foot complications

Cristian Bălălău1,2, Nicolae Bacalbașa1, Carolina Negrei1, Bianca Gălățeanu3, Octav Ghinghină1,4, Oana-Denisa Bălălău1, Ioana Păunică1, Marinela Chioveanu5

1Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
2St. Pantelimon Emergency Clinical Hospital, Department of Surgery, Bucharest, Romania
3University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bucharest
4St. Ioan Emergency Clinical Hospital, Department of Surgery, Bucharest, Romania
5Sanador Hospital, Bucharest, Romania

J Clin Invest Surg. 2019; 4(1): 5-9. DOI: 10.25083/2559.5555/4.1/5.9
Running title: Modern management of diabetic foot complications
Keywords: diabetic foot, complications, ulcer, risk factors, modern management, amputation


Diabetes mellitus comprises a heterogeneous group of metabolic abnormalities, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, resulting from a deficiency in insulin secretion, a deficiency in action, or from both situations. In its evolution, diabetes can lead to acute or chronic complications, which can be avoided or whose progression can be slowed by optimal glycemic control, provided by the effective treatment, diet, physical activity and glycemic monitoring.

One of the most common complications of diabetes is diabetic neuropathy which, in combination or not with peripheral arterial disease, may result in leg changes (ulcers, gangrene, amputations), changes that are known under the heading of diabetic foot.

The risk of developing leg ulcer is 25% in the life of a patient with type 1 or 2 diabetes, and amputations of varying degrees may sometimes be necessary. These can, however, be prevented by active screening characterized by the neurological examination for neuropathic signs, and the vascular examination to highlight the presence of peripheral arterial disease.

Therefore, in order to prevent the appearance of leg ulcers and to reduce the morbidity associated with it, it is important to diagnose and manage risk factors.